The Effect on the Yield of Biogas Using Algae as Stimulant ab 35.99 EURO
RED RAIN IN KERALA- A STRANGE PHENOMENON Red rain have been noticed in several parts of the world since 1818. The basic cause of red rain was unknown to the world. The findings by several other scientists which came to the conclusion that algae, lichens, pollen grains, faecal matters of honeybees, sandstorm, red soil, meteoric stones,cosmic origin etc have been contradicted. Though these agents were found on the earth for centuries red rain did not occur always. The new findings that biogas from under the earth's crust get released into the atmosphere due to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslides, collapse of wells, volcano etc. Several ores (minerals) get discharged into the atmosphere along with these biogases. These ores gives the red colour to the water and biocells.In the red rain a large number of biocells (which included algae, fungi, lichens, pollengrains etc) and various elements like Carbon (5%), Silicon(11%), Phosphorus(4%), Nickel(2%), Chromium 111 (3.5%), Chromium V1(2%), Alumina(18%), Carbonic acid(8%), Organic matter(15%) were observed.
Fossil fuels that can be accessed economically are running out due to stress upon usage of oil, coal, and natural gas for long time and increasing in the population earth. So, new fuel resources have to be created to face the limitations of traditional fuel. Different marine biomass have been converted to usable energy forms. For instance, many microorganisms including: microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi have ability to accumulate neutral lipids under specific cultivation conditions. Microbial lipids contain high fractions of poly-unsaturated fatty acids and have the potential to serve as a source of significant quantities of transportation fuels. In addition, some algae (microalgae and macroalgae) were reported to have high contents of carbohydrate that can be used as substrates for renewable biofuel such as:bioalcohols, biodiesel,biogas and biohydrogen. Production of fuel from marine biomass provides advantage over that produced from agro-based raw materials. Liquid, gaseous or solid biofuels hold great promise to deliver an increasing share of the energy required to power a new global green economy.
Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae, that is native to the American tropics, most likely Mexico and Central America. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, becoming naturalized in some areas. The specific epithet, "curcas", was first used by Portuguese doctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago and is of uncertain origin. Common names include Barbados Nut, Purging Nut, Physic Nut. The oil is mainly used as biodiesel for energy. The cake can be used for fish or animal feed (if detoxified), biomass feedstock to power electricity plants, or as biogas or high-quality organic fertilizer. It can also be used as a bio-pesticide and for medicinal purposes . When crushed, the resulting oil from the seeds can be processed to produce a high-quality biodiesel that can be used in a standard diesel engine. RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA BHOPAL INDIA develope a pilot plant for CO2 capture and production of useful multipurpose fuel like Hydrogen, Methane and Algae growth, Jatropha plantation for Bio diesel production in the Energy park.
There have been many successful efforts in the past to produce biogas from buffalo dung based slurry. Thousands of biogas plants have been installed in India and possibly abroad to decrease the dependency on conventional energy resources (mostly derivatives of crude oil). Biogas plants involve buffalo/cow dung slurry with food waste, paper waste, leaves and poultry farm waste. Experiments are performed to check maximum yield of Biogas. This will help save lot of LPG gas and also reduce environment hazards of land filling organic waste available in huge quantity in villages.
This study is an attempt at achieving diesel fuel equivalent performance from diesel engines with maximum substitution of diesel with renewable fuels. In this context the study has been designed to analyze the influence of B20 algae biodiesel as a pilot fuel in a biodiesel- biogas dual fuel engine, and results are compared to those of biodiesel and diesel operation at identical engine settings.Experiments were performed at various loads from 0 to 100 % of maximum load at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. In general, B20algae biodiesel is compatible with diesel in terms of performance and combustion characteristics. Dual fuel mode operation displayslower thermal efficiency and higher fuel consumption than for other fuel modes of the test run across the range of engine loads.Dual fuel mode displayed lower emissions of NOx and Smoke opacity while HC and CO concentrations were considerably higher as compared to other fuels. In dual fuel mode peak pressure and heat release rate were slightly higher compared to diesel and biodieselmode of operation for all engine loads.
Biofuel - Biomass, Anaerobic digestion, Vegetable oil used as fuel, Biodiesel, Biodiesel by region, Methanol fuel, Ethanol fuel, Butanol fuel, Ethanol fuel in Brazil, Bioenergy in China, E85, Biogas, Thermal depolymerization, Gasification, Cellulosic ethanol, Algae fuel, Biofuel in India, Biofuel in Sweden, Biofuel in the United Kingdom, Biofuel in the United States, Bagasse
This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable. Serving as a complete reference guide to the production of biofuels and other value added products from micro and macro algae, it covers various aspects of algal biotechnology from the basics to large scale cultivation, harvesting and processing for a variety of products. It is authored and edited by respected world experts in the field of algal biotechnology and provides the most up to date and cutting edge information on developments in the field. Over the past decade there has been substantial focus and related literature on the application of algal biomass for the generation of novel processes and products. 'Algae Biotechnology: Products and Processes' encompasses a holistic approach to critically evaluating developments in the field of algal biotechnology whilst taking into account recent advances and building on the body of knowledge. Aspects of the effects of harmful algae are also discussed, as well as the potential commercial application of algal biotechnology, the techno-economic feasibility of algal biodiesel production and the use of genetic and metabolic engineering for the improvement of yield. Other bioenergy sources such as alcohol fuels, aviation fuels, biohydrogen and biogas are also covered. This book is intended for postgraduates and researchers working in the biofuels and algal industry, it constitutes ideal reference material for both early stage and established researchers.
This book presents the dynamic role of algae in a sustainable environment. Two major aspects, namely bioenergy and bioremediation, have been elaborated in various chapter contributed by scientists and teachers from different geographical areas throughout the world. Algal biofuels is an emerging area of equal interest to researchers, industries, and policy makers working or focusing on alternative (i.e. renewable) fuels. Algae have been an area of interest due to their wide range of applications. Over the last 5 decades, eukaryotic algae have been used in the aquaculture industry as feed for invertebrates, providing a rich source of antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals and protein. More recently, there has been a focus on the use of algal biomass in the development of alternative fuels. The extraction of oil from algae has been widely explored as a much more viable feedstock than plant-based oils in large-scale fuel production. using algae as feedstock has the advantages that it doesn't require arable land and that wastewater can be used as a source of nutrients in their culture. The multifunctional approach of algae includes pollution remediation, carbon sequestration, biofuels production, and delivery of value-added products. However, there are still some obstacles that need to be overcome to make their use as potential feedstock for biofuels techno-economically feasible. In order to maintain the sustainability aspect ofalgal biofuels, various aspects have to be studied and critically analyzed to assess the long-term sustainability of algal derived biofuels.This book discusses the role of algae as a promising future feedstock for biofuels. They are known to sequester carbon in much larger amounts than plants and as such the book also describes their phycoremediation potential for conventional as well as emerging contaminants. It describes the role of anaerobic digestion in algal biorefineries, bioreactions and process parameters, biogas recovery and reuse. The role of algal biofilm based technology in wastewater treatment and transforming waste into bio-products is discussed, and remediation of sewage water through algae is assessed. The book also describes the production of biohydrogen, bio-oil, biodiesel, and the major bottlenecks in their usage. The emerging characterization techniques of these biofuels (bio-oil and biodiesel) are described, as are the decolorizing potential of algae and the genetic engineering techniques that could enhance the production of lipids in algae. Other aspects of the book include the role of remote sensing technology in the monitoring of algae and a life cycle assessment of algal biofuels.