Analysis of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant ab 64.9 EURO
Producing energy from biomass can be cost competitive today, in particular heat. However, in many cases, economic incentives are currently needed to off-set cost differences between bio-energy and fossil fuel-generated electricity and heat. Support measures should be backed by a strong policy framework which balances the need for energy with other important objectives such greenhouse-gas reduction, food security, biodiversity, and socio-economic development. In addition, new dedicated bio-energy plants are becoming increasingly important to meet growing demand for bio-energy electricity and heat. Conventional biofuel technologies include well-established processes that are already producing biofuels on a commercial scale. These biofuels, commonly referred to as first-generation, include sugar- and starch-based ethanol, oil-crop based biodiesel and straight vegetable oil, as well as biogas derived through anaerobic digestion. Advanced biofuel technologies are conversion technologies which are still in the research and development (R&D), pilot or demonstration phase, commonly referred to as second- or third- generation.
The book Analysis of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant is a product of a research that identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/municipal effluence as economically viable alternative source of energy. The proposed Commercial biogas plant was mathematically modeled for urban area clean energy requirement. The capacity of the plant was estimated for a given cycle of operation. A nominal 1500m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth.
Sugarcane is an important cash crop in Pakistan which is the base of renewable energy sources like ethanol, biogas products and fertilizers. It is cultivated as commercial crop in 60 countries of 5 major continents, Brazil being the largest one. Pakistan is the 5th largest sugarcane growing country of the world and our multibillion sugar industry totally dependent on the fate of this crop. Unfortunately per acre yield of this crop in our country is lowest among the leading sugarcane growing countries of the world. The most important is the attack of several pathogens like bacteria, fungus, pests, mycoplasma and specially viruses including major viral diseases like mosaic, streak and ceria. Among all the viral diseases sugarcane mosaic virus is widely spread and a significant part of the crop (46%) is lost every year due to SCMV. Vegetative propagation of sugarcaen leads plants to carry pathogen titer generation after generation. Biotechnology plays its role in Virus free crops production through tissue culture. In plant tissue culture regeneration of virus free stock only possibel through apical meristem culture. Present work is a brief documentation of SCNV free plants production
In this study, a solar PV-biogas hybrid power system for electrification is designed for Mankramso community located in the Offinso-North district in Ghana. The daily electric load demand in Mankramso community was estimated at 262.05 kWh/d, for 400 households, school, health clinic, commercial loads (flour mills, cold store, and small businesses), church buildings and streetlights. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software was used to perform technical, economic and greenhouse gas emission analysis of the hybrid power system. The findings show that the system configuration which comprises of 18.6 kW of PV panels, 45 kW of biogas generator, 62 kWh of battery storage and 15.7 kW of converter is the most optimal hybrid power system configuration to meet the daily electric load. This optimal hybrid power system had a levilized cost of energy (LCOE) of US$ 0.188/kWh with an initial capital cost of US$ 102,247. This LCOE is only 10.6% higher than current LCOE (US$ 0.17/kWh) for residential tariffs in Ghana at the time of this study.
Urbanisation and industrialisation are accelerating simultaneously in Lagos State, resulting in a concentration of people leading to pollution from uncontrolled and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste that disrupts the beauty of the city. Available resources are not maximally utilised due to lack of adequate information on the quality and the pattern of wastes generated. Waste characteristics are essential for waste disposal, facility planning and waste management policy formulation. This work examined the daily household/commercial waste generation rate, the per capita per day and characterized its composition and concluded that, over 80% of the waste components in Lagos Metropolis are biodegradable, which can be converted to organic manure and also for the generation of biogas. Waste generation is higher than collection, which may result into waste accumulation over time, thereby degrading the environment. The analysis should be especially useful to governments, stakeholders and researchers in environmental management for improved and efficient waste management strategy, programme and implementation.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in collaboration with the German International Development (GIZ) is implementing a project entitled "Operationalizing Green Economy (GE) Transition in Africa" in five selected countries: Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Rwanda. As part of the GE project implementation activities in Ghana, this baseline survey was conducted in the three selected planning units in Ghana namely, Tolon District (Agriculture Sector), Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (Energy Sector) and Tema Metropolitan Assembly (Waste Sector). The proposed GE options for the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA) are (1) Generation of energy from biomass waste such as pellets, briquettes and biogas from organic waste (2) Utilization of energy efficient cook stoves such as Eco-stove at institutional, commercial and household level. Current quantity of biomass waste converted into pellets and briquettes are: Abellon - 25,000 MT per year, Esereso Carbon Products - 4,000MT/year) and Sustainable Energy Solutions - 100 MT of wood off cuts into 30MT of kindling wood sticks per month.
This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable. Serving as a complete reference guide to the production of biofuels and other value added products from micro and macro algae, it covers various aspects of algal biotechnology from the basics to large scale cultivation, harvesting and processing for a variety of products. It is authored and edited by respected world experts in the field of algal biotechnology and provides the most up to date and cutting edge information on developments in the field. Over the past decade there has been substantial focus and related literature on the application of algal biomass for the generation of novel processes and products. 'Algae Biotechnology: Products and Processes' encompasses a holistic approach to critically evaluating developments in the field of algal biotechnology whilst taking into account recent advances and building on the body of knowledge. Aspects of the effects of harmful algae are also discussed, as well as the potential commercial application of algal biotechnology, the techno-economic feasibility of algal biodiesel production and the use of genetic and metabolic engineering for the improvement of yield. Other bioenergy sources such as alcohol fuels, aviation fuels, biohydrogen and biogas are also covered. This book is intended for postgraduates and researchers working in the biofuels and algal industry, it constitutes ideal reference material for both early stage and established researchers.
Diploma Thesis from the year 2012 in the subject Physics - Biophysics, grade: 1,0, University of Vienna (Physik), language: English, abstract: Todays agricultural food production highly depends on the availability of non-renewable resources like crude oil, natural gas and phosphor rocks. Tomorrow's food security can only be ensured by reducing this dependency. There are open questions concerning the methods that can be used for the production of renewable sources in order to achieve this goal. Is it technically and economically feasible, for instance, to produce micro-algal fertilizer in photo-bio reactors to recycle N and P from waste water streams? Is this furthermore possible by avoiding the combustion of non-renewable energies to become energy self-sucient? Relevant examples from literature will be used to investigate the microalgal potential to extract nutrients from urban waste water streams for the re-injection into the food chain of the population. The production of algae and heat will be described in a bio-physical way to calculate the mass- and energy flux in photo-bio reactors, attached to walls of buildings in Vienna. It will be suggested to decompose the generated bio material through anaerobic digestion to increase the N- and P share on one hand and to produce methane as an energy carrier on the other hand. The calculation model will be used to estimate the costs of producing a micro-algal fertilizer in Vienna. Furthermore a possible utilization of the generated fertilizer in vertical farms will be discussed. About 271t micro algae per year could be produced on a 100m*100m wall in Vienna. The combustion of the produced biogas could meet the entire heat and electrical-energy demand of the production process. By demonstrating the technical feasibility of every single part of the energy self-sucient production chain, the technical feasibility of the whole concept is ensured. The costs of this product, however, would be nine times higher than the costs of commercial fertilizer. The bio-re nery in question still has a great potential when it comes to saving a high amount of non-renewable resources, thus making it an attractive alternative to the exclusive use of biomaterial as an energy carrier. This can be further shown by comparing the sunlight irradiation on a photo-bio reactor with the calori c value of the produced micro algae: This calculation yields an energy conversion efficiency of about 4% which could be surpassed by the electricity production of every available photovoltaic system.