Biogas Production-optimal conditions affecting gas yield ab 59 € als Taschenbuch: Biogas Production from Animal and Domestic Waste. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, English, International, Gebundene Ausgaben,
Biogas Production-optimal conditions affecting gas yield ab 59 EURO Biogas Production from Animal and Domestic Waste
In this work, MBT residual waste was used for experimental studies to investigate the influence of crucial parameters influencing biochemical processes in anaerobic degradation in residual wastes from MBT. The moisture content is one of the most critical parameters influencing biogas production in waste as well as nutrient transport. Batch experiments were carried out to correlate moisture content and biogas production in MBT residual waste. Moreover, quantification and monitoring of heterogeneous moisture distribution in a landfill body is critical for mechanical landfill stability and landfill gas emission control. For quantitatively monitoring in-situ moisture distribution in in MBT residual waste, a novel geoelectrical technique was successfully applied and evaluated on laboratory scale. The pH development in leachate from MBT residual wastes and the relating acid buffering intensity was found to be important for facilitating biochemical conversion of solid organic carbon matter to biogas. At unadjusted conditions, a positive correlation between strength of acidification phase and biogas production, especially methane production, could be found. Thereby, the acid buffer intensity of MBT residual wastes proved to be crucial for pH stabilisation. Due to maximum cumulative biogas production at neutral pH, pH regulation at pH 7 is recommended for waste treatment in MBT plants and landfill bioreactors. The bioavailability of metabolic intermediates was investigated with regard to their sorption behaviour on MBT residual wastes. Alcohols of a homologous series with increasing octanol-water partition coefficients POW were used as surrogates for carboxylic acids. Activated carbon was used as a reference sorption system due to its high specific surface area. By determining the distribution coefficient KD, the bioavailability factor Bf was quantified and denotes that bioavailability of the surrogates was practically unlimited. Transferring these results to intermediates of the anaerobic degradation with similar log POW values, e.g. acetic acid and propionic acid, reveals that biodegradation of certain organic substrates e.g. acetic acid or propionic acid can be considered unconfined in MBT residual waste.
Bioenergy production from agricultural crop biomass or residues has gained interest recently due to the escalating cost of fossil fuels and the need to mitigate global warming caused by increasing GHG emissions. Of all the different feed stocks used for bioenergy production in Africa, cassava biomass potentially offers multiple benefits for producing biofuels such as biogas. This book, therefore, highlights the bioenergy (biogas) potential of the crop in Africa. The basic agricultural properties of cassava were discussed including its high carbohydrate content and total dry matter. Its ability to thrive in all ecological zones with one of the best blue water-footprints especially in drought conditions and relatively low fertility soils. The crop therefore requires low agricultural input. The various pre-treatment techniques as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each technology for cassava biogas production were analysed. A holistic view on the highly publicised food vs. energy debate were provided. The book recommends cassava and its biomass as the next energy crop for bioenergy production and should be useful to future researchers and government policymakers in Africa.
In today's energy demanding lifestyle, it is clear that there is a gap both now and in the future between energy needs for economic development and the ability of both the traditional and the conventional modern energy sectors to meet up with this need. It is therefore very expedient to explore and exploit new sources of energy, which are both renewable and eco-friendly. Renewable sources of energy contribute to sustainable development in diverse ways.Research in the field of bio-energy production reveals that organic waste generated from farms as well as municipal and domestic waste can be used as good sources of biogas.This book reveals the optimal conditions that give enhanced gas yield. Measurable physical quantities derived from our experimental data agreed with a Monod type kinetic equation. This book will therefore serve as a guide to biogas plant operators
This book offers the current state of knowledge in the field of biofuels, presented by selected research centers from around the world. Biogas from waste production process and areas of application of biomethane were characterized. Also, possibilities of applications of wastes from fruit bunch of oil palm tree and high biomass/bagasse from sorghum and Bermuda grass for second-generation bioethanol were presented. Processes and mechanisms of biodiesel production, including the review of catalytic transesterification process, and careful analysis of kinetics, including bioreactor system for algae breeding, were widely analyzed. Problem of emissivity of NOx from engines fueled by B20 fuel was characterized. The closing chapters deal with the assessment of the potential of biofuels in Turkey, the components of refinery systems for production of biodegradable plastics from biomass. Also, a chapter concerning the environmental conditions of synthesis gas production as a universal raw material for the production of alternative fuels was also added.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process in which biodegradable organic matters are broken-down by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen into biogas, which consists of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and trace amount of other gases. AD typically converts the organic waste into biogas at an increasing rate for the first two weeks where the rate of conversion is constant until the organic source is consumed. AD is widely used to treat wastewater sludge and organic waste. Some of the advantages of applying AD are it's a renewable source of energy, reduces the emission of landfill gases and the nutrient rich solids left after digestion can be used as an organic soil amendment. In engineered anaerobic digesters, the digestion of organic waste takes place in a special reactor, or enclosed chamber, where critical environmental conditions such as moisture content, temperature and pH levels can be controlled to maximize microbe generation, gas generation and waste decomposition rates. Anaerobic digestion has been in use for several decades to treat sewage sludge, animal wastes and industrial wastewater. Only in the past decade, has the technology become a recognized method
The first experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of inoculating sweet pepper seeds and transplant roots with Nitrobin (contains N-free living bacteria; Azotobacter and Azospirillium) and Phosphorin (contains a PDB such Bacillus) in order to decreased the needed N and P fertilizers required for growing and producing sweet peppers under clay loam soil conditions. The second experiment aimed to study the effect of different organic fertilizer sources (FYM, Chichen manure, Biogas manure and Agrolig) in order to determine the optimum organic level and source required for clean sweet pepper production .i.e the highest fruit yield with least contamination.
Biogas and Biodiesel is a book that reports all the key issues associated with the history, production science and technology and the economics of biogas and biodiesel at the global scale. The topics were appropriately selected based on critical survey of a wide range of both previous and most recent literatures. The book was harmonized to fit the demand of students, companies and policy makers. Researchers, especially those in science and technology, will find the book excellent in understanding the appropriate feedstocks, experimental designs, reaction conditions, economic feasibilities and the directions for further studies.