The demand for energy is geometrically increasing all over the world and there is need to harness energy from every opportunity and source nature bestowed.Biogas (biological gas) is obtained from the anaerobic fermentation or degradation of wastes, vegetable, cow dung, industrial, animal and poultry droppings and is a mixture of methane, carbondioxide and traces of hydrogen sulphide.It is a biological processes which involve three steps: hydrolysis,acid formation and methanization.Biogas formation is simply the conversion of simple compounds into methane. The amount of solid wastes generated in developing countries such as Nigeria has steadily increased over the last few decades as a result of increase in population and continuous growth of industries and agricultural activities. This book discussed the generation of biogas from various inputs to compliment the fuel usage in energy production.It is a must read to all energy students and tutors. It will enhance and contribute to the global drive for energy production.
Inadequate energy supply and environmental pollution are gargantuan problems confronting many developing nations of the world. The energy demanding lifestyle of the modern world calls for the generation of energy from alternative sources that are renewable and eco friendly. Rising crude oil prices and environmental pollution resulting from the exploration, processing and utilization of crude oil and its products have forced nations of the world to think about alternative sources of energy. Economic growth and the resultant heavy consumption of natural resources are responsible for pollution, global warming and production of acid rain etc. There is a consensus of opinion that achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa and other developing economies will require a significant expansion of access to modern and alternative renewable energy. Biogas energy could serve this purpose and can also be managed by locally available resources and simple technology especially for rural dwellers. Anaerobic digestion is one of the few biotechnologies that can simultaneously produce bioenergy (as methane biogas), reduce environmental pollution and recycle nutrients.
The global mega trends such as climate change are driving the increased adoption of renewable energy sources in general, whereas the price volatility, supply issues and environmental hazards of fossil fuel production are about to accelerate the pace in the investments of non-fossil fuels production in particular. Biogas, the most sustainable of biofuels, is in a starting point of an exponential market growth curve.This book will cover the latest developments and future scenarios of the rapidly developing bio gas market across the globe.
Fossil fuels that can be accessed economically are running out due to stress upon usage of oil, coal, and natural gas for long time and increasing in the population earth. So, new fuel resources have to be created to face the limitations of traditional fuel. Different marine biomass have been converted to usable energy forms. For instance, many microorganisms including: microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi have ability to accumulate neutral lipids under specific cultivation conditions. Microbial lipids contain high fractions of poly-unsaturated fatty acids and have the potential to serve as a source of significant quantities of transportation fuels. In addition, some algae (microalgae and macroalgae) were reported to have high contents of carbohydrate that can be used as substrates for renewable biofuel such as:bioalcohols, biodiesel,biogas and biohydrogen. Production of fuel from marine biomass provides advantage over that produced from agro-based raw materials. Liquid, gaseous or solid biofuels hold great promise to deliver an increasing share of the energy required to power a new global green economy.
The shortage of energy in rural areas and the pollution of the environment from animal wastes due to lack of appropriate technology in Africa motivated the author to conduct research and write this book. In this research book an economically feasible, technically acceptable and environmentally friendly biogas plant is designed by using low cost plastic materials. This book is an essential reference for chemical engineering, environmental engineering and agricultural students. The concept solves global environmental pollution and the problem of lack of energy and organic fertilizer in rural communities at once. Moreover, this book plays an important role for agricultural researchers working in rural energy and environmental protection.
Interest in energy systems based on hydrogen is growing rapidly. The main reason for this renewed interest is that a future hydrogen fuel based society may offer one of the solutions to the tow major challenges facing the global economy in the future: coping with climate change and ensuring security of energy supply. Both these challenges require the development of new, highly efficient energy technologies that are either carbon-neutral or that emit only small amounts of carbon dioxide. Biogas, as an attractive renewable energy source, has been - up to now - mainly used for small to medium scale combined heat and power production. Today, biogar has also received increased attention for upgrading to high quality fuels as an important intermediate in the industrial synthesis of a wide range of chemicals. Steam reforming of biogas allows the production of renewable synthesis gas (hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide mixture). Further steps can either be production of pure H2 as a future energy carrier or, on the other hand, combustion in gas engines to obtain higher engine efficiencies and lower NOx emissions. The latter is the short term objective of the present investigative work.
Erdgas hat sich in Deutschland und in Europa in den letzten Jahrzehnten als vielseitiger, effizienter und umweltschonender Energieträger in Haushalt, Gewerbe und Industrie etabliert. Doch der Erdgasmarkt befindet sich im Wandel: traditionelle Erdgasquellen versiegen, während neue Quellen, insbesondere im außereuropäischen Ausland, an Bedeutung gewinnen. Im Rahmen der deutschen Energiewende spielt zudem die Nutzung regenerativer Quellen (Biogas oder auch Wasserstoff und Methan mittels Power-to-Gas ) eine immer größere Rolle, während auf EU-Ebene Handelshemmnisse zunehmend abgebaut werden.Diese Veränderungen bieten große Chancen für die Gasversorgung und -anwendung: erhöhte Versorgungssicherheit, wettbewerbsfähige Preise und global verringerte CO2-Emissionen durch die Integration erneuerbarer Energien. Allerdings wird dies auch zu größeren Schwankungen der verbrennungstechnischen Eigenschaften des Erdgases führen, worauf nicht jede Anwendung in Industrie und Haushalt ausreichend vorbereitet ist.In diesem Sammelband sind relevante Veröffentlichungen aus den Fachzeitschriften gwf Gas Erdgas und Gaswärme International zusammengetragen, die dieses hochaktuelle Thema aus ganz unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln betrachten. Gasversorger kommen ebenso zu Wort wie Gasverbraucher aus Haushalt und Industrie.Begleitet wird der Band durch eine Reihe von Texten, in denen wesentliche Grundlagen zu Fragen der Gasqualität erläutert und die aktuelle und zukünftige Situation analysiert wird.
Today energy consumption and demand are growing up all over the world and most of the resources used like petroleum, natural gas, coal are not sustainable sources of energy. The combustion of these traditional energy sources creates greenhouse gases which causes global warming. The problems arising from non sustainable use of energy sources have led to increased awareness and widespread research on the accessibility of new and renewable energy resources and technologies. Biogas is one of the most efficient and effective options among the various other alternative sources of renewable energy especially for developing country like Ethiopia. This green energy technology have great contribution in economic, social, health and environmental aspects of the society which are pillars of sustainable development. Despite of its numerous advantages, the potential of biogas technology could not be fully harnessed due to various characteristics of substrates used for biogas production. Researchers have tried different techniques to enhance biogas production from various types of substrates and these techniques are reviewed in this book.
Bioenergy production from agricultural crop biomass or residues has gained interest recently due to the escalating cost of fossil fuels and the need to mitigate global warming caused by increasing GHG emissions. Of all the different feed stocks used for bioenergy production in Africa, cassava biomass potentially offers multiple benefits for producing biofuels such as biogas. This book, therefore, highlights the bioenergy (biogas) potential of the crop in Africa. The basic agricultural properties of cassava were discussed including its high carbohydrate content and total dry matter. Its ability to thrive in all ecological zones with one of the best blue water-footprints especially in drought conditions and relatively low fertility soils. The crop therefore requires low agricultural input. The various pre-treatment techniques as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each technology for cassava biogas production were analysed. A holistic view on the highly publicised food vs. energy debate were provided. The book recommends cassava and its biomass as the next energy crop for bioenergy production and should be useful to future researchers and government policymakers in Africa.