Anaerobic Digestion is a series of chemical reactions during which organic material is decomposed through the metabolic pathways of naturally occurring microorganisms in an oxygen-depleted environment.In nature this type of breakdown typically occurs in warm wet and dark environments, such as in the digestive tracts. The microorganisms are exploited in the biotechnological process of anaerobic digestion both to reduce the pollution caused by organic wastes and to produce methane, which can be used as a fuel. The number and types of microorganisms present in digesters are likely to depend upon the type of digester, its operating conditions and the waste composition. Anaerobic Digesters can be used on any carbon containing industrial wastewater i.e. food processing, pulp and paper, sugar and distillery, slaughterhouse, cheese whey and diary units, brewing industry and municipal sludge. Also, they provide an effective method for turning residues from different wastes, biogas (rich in methane which can be used to generate heat and/or electricity), fiber (this can be used as a nutrient-rich soil conditioner) and liquor (this can be used as liquid fertilize).
Chicken feather is an increasing abundant organic solid waste containing high concentration of keratinous protein. Disposal of this huge volume of waste has always been an issue of concern for poultry industry. Therefore, energy and material recovery of this valuable protein resource is an important field of waste treatment and bioenergy generation. Anaerobic digestion is an environmentally and economically promising alternative process for sustainable biogas production of feather waste. Furthermore, application of appropriate pretreatment methods would enhance biogas potential of chicken feather.
The textbook "Treatment Of Distillery Spentwash With PUF & PVC In Anaerobic Reactor" provides the knowledge about the treatment options available to treat a distillery industry wastewater i.e. spentwash. In this textbook the distillery spentwash is treated in anaerobic stationary downflow reactors with two different packing materials viz. Polyurethane Foam (PUF) and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). The spentwash is treated with these packing materials in the reactor and the treatment efficiency is analysed by means of various physico-chemical characteristics like pH, Temperature, COD, BOD, Total and Suspended Solids and Biogas production. The textbook provides thorough knowledge about the treatment technique adopted and the fabrication of lab scale treatment unit for the treatment of distillery spentwash. The textbook also enlight us with various methods adopted to treat the industrial wastewaters from various authors in literature survey conducted by the authors.
In a biogas installation, green power is produced from manure and biomass. Because of the optimization and innovation of the biogas industry and the continuously rising energy prices, it is become very interesting to invest in biogas installations. The generated electricity can be sold to energy companies at attractive tariffs for sustainable electricity. The quantity of electricity generated can be guaranteed, making biogas installations attractive investments. For such biogas installation, the digester of the biogas is considered as the main component of the process. Biogas digesters are usually made from steel, concrete, plastics etc, which have a problem of either cost, environmental effect or maintenance problems. To have a sustainable production of biogas, the digester material is required to be renewable. Here it is designed from an engineered wood product, plywood, which insures a more sustainable production and relatively lower cost with acceptable maintenance. The mechanical design of the plywood digester including assembly and installation is done. It is possible to directly integrate the new digester with the mature technology of double membrane biogas holder.
In 2008 the 20% of the world population was consuming the 80% of the resources of the planet. At the same time, countries like India and China were aspiring to achieve the same consumption patterns. In particular, the building industry demands the 39% of primary energy and has the biggest impact on greenhouse gas emissions. This book provides an analysis of the development that architecture has encountered in the centuries, identifying 4 main categories, according to features like architectural composition, material use and energy requirements. The analysis focuses especially on the category of the active architectures, highlighting the transformation of housing from a pure architectonic composition process to a wider concept of sustainable energy producer. The development of smart grids, water management and biogas production are analysed as important tools for the development of architectures as diffuse small energy facilities and responsible resources consumers. The analysis should help to understand the links that architecture has with our economy and style of life, and should be especially useful to all those who are interested in sustainability
Huge amounts of waste generated in Cameroon from various production activities are not disposed of as appropriate, nor as possible. The resulting harm on the environment is immense. Lack of the inclusion of sound waste management techniques in the agendas of the stakeholders over the years stand as the greatest challenge to the country. The health of the population is grossly at stake, and public health safety measures in Cameroon must be completely interwoven with the implementation of a sound waste management system. Resources that may have been allocated to other public investment projects are diverted to harness raw materials for the industries,while a vast amount of such raw materials lie in dumps,the ultimate waste recipient in Cameroon. Plus recommending the adoption of sound policies,this two-part study reviews in part I, a sound waste management chain: sorting, regular collection, recycling,incineration, composting/fermentation for energy recovery , before final landfilling. Part II addresses the example of palm oil processing and looks into how compost and biogas can be conveniently tapped from the residues to supplement income for the industry.
This book presents the state of the art in biogas production using anaerobic digestion technology, with an emphasis on waste utilization/valorization. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to biogas production from different waste streams, it covers various aspects of anaerobic digestion technology from the basics, i.e., microbiological aspects to prominent parameters governing biogas production systems, as well as major principles of their operation, analysis, process control, and troubleshooting. Written and edited by internationally recognized experts in the field of biogas production from both academia and industry, it provides in-depth and cutting-edge information on central developments in the field. In addition, it discusses and reviews major issues affecting biogas production, including the type of feedstock, pretreatment techniques, production systems, design and fabrication of biogas plants, as well as biogas purification and upgrading technologies. 'Biogas: Fundamentals, Process, and Operation' also addresses the application of advanced environmental and energy evaluation tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), exergy, techno-economics, and modeling techniques.