The availability of potable water is receding due to the discharge wastewater from industrial sector. Purification and recycling of wastewater have been made mandatory. Anaerobic technology is the most versatile option for treating high-strength organic wastewater. The book describes the treatment of synthetic starch containing wastewater of high COD in an anaerobic tapered fluidized bed bioreactor which reduced the wash out of the biomass. Mesoporous Activated Carbon (MAC) was used as a carrier matrix to improve the efficiency through insitu immobilization of anaerobic bacteria and caused internal micro agitation due to entrapped gases. The effect of parameters viz., temperature, pH, BOD, COD, biogas, total VFA and its composition, alkalinity, ORP, bed height and superficial velocities on the performance of the reactor is discussed. The COD removal efficiency is 92% in the reactor. The book includes preparation and characterization of MAC, optimization of the reactor and kinetic study for different start-up under transient conditions. Further a mathematical model for the prediction of the output values using different neural network techniques is developed.
Fast growth of population and energy crisis are the main issues of today world. The objective of present study was to use renewable energy resources for sustainable environment. The biogas was produced from fruit and vegetable waste by anaerobic digestion and application of its byproduct as a fertilizer. The fruit waste, vegetable waste, buffalo dung was analyzed for moisture content, ash, protein, fiber, fat, carbon to nitrogen ratio, COD and BOD. Temperature and pH was checked after regular interval of time. Proximate analysis of Digestate(organic residue left after biogas production) was done. Overall pH was almost neutral except fruit waste which had slightly acidic pH. The highest biogas was produced from vegetable waste followed by the mixture of fruit and vegetable waste and fruit waste in decreasing order. Compost was made by using the waste generated by university. Vegetation was grown to see the effect of compost, digestate and chemical fertilizer on them.
In a biogas installation, green power is produced from manure and biomass. Because of the optimization and innovation of the biogas industry and the continuously rising energy prices, it is become very interesting to invest in biogas installations. The generated electricity can be sold to energy companies at attractive tariffs for sustainable electricity. The quantity of electricity generated can be guaranteed, making biogas installations attractive investments. For such biogas installation, the digester of the biogas is considered as the main component of the process. Biogas digesters are usually made from steel, concrete, plastics etc, which have a problem of either cost, environmental effect or maintenance problems. To have a sustainable production of biogas, the digester material is required to be renewable. Here it is designed from an engineered wood product, plywood, which insures a more sustainable production and relatively lower cost with acceptable maintenance. The mechanical design of the plywood digester including assembly and installation is done. It is possible to directly integrate the new digester with the mature technology of double membrane biogas holder.
The search for alternative energy sources is un avoidable for the fact that fossil fuels which remains the world's energy sources are depleting at a faster rate and at the same time causing ecological and environmental problems. Biogas could therefore be an alternative that provides energy security and environmental sustainability. The success of any Biogas plant lies solemnly on the adopted design methodology and for this reason many failures were reported from Biogas plants due to poor design. In this book, a good design criteria is highlighted and effects of seeding and temperature being important kinetic parameters affecting the production of Biogas, were checked and determined using cow dung. Temperature is an important parameter that keeps a Biogas plant as economical as possible while seeding on the other hand initiates the anaerobic digestion within a short period of time.
The finite nature of fossil fuel resource has made it imperative that alternative, renewable energy sources be explored. Anaerobic digestion from complex feedstock provides that necessary technology that not only supplement fossil fuel requirement but also, help sustain efficient waste management practice. For effective use of complex feedstock for biogas production kinetic models are valuable pre-requisites. "The simpler the Better" is a usual key phrase in model development. This text book provides an alternative, attractive approach to modeling biogas production from complex feedstock using very little input parameters. FEATURES OF TEXTBOOK - Provides a simplified approach to characterizing complex feedstock biodegradability using simple models - Shows how microbial population participating in anaerobic digestion can undergo cooperativity. - Provides a simplified technique for sizing reactors used in anaerobic digestion process using biogas yield.
The present book is a result of experimental work carried out on a spark- ignition engine fueled with Bio-gas. The biogas was obtained by the anaerobic digestion of Gobar(Cow-Dung). The investigations are made to determine the difference in the performance of the engine due the the purification of raw bio-gas. It is a good work carried out by the author which can further be studied by using various other biogas cleaning methods.
This study examined socio-economic impact of the biogas technology in Tanzania with the view to enhance gender involvement into the renewable energy technologies. The objectives were to assess costs and financing modalities, community awareness on benefits, biogas user's satisfactions and the general challenges with regard to the technology. Data collection was through formal questionnaire survey to 210 biogas users across the programme areas which cover 28 districts in 10 regions of the Tanzania Mainland. Analytical techniques used in the study include descriptive methods such as cross tabulations, means, percentages, frequencies and standard deviation. Cost for the biogas installation was found to be independent of the household income level and the financing modalities were through the subsidy provided by the programme, own equity, support from friends and relatives, churches and borrowing from financial institutions. The technology was made available to the community through programme staff, religious organizations, NGOs, mason/company and the media.