The influence of subtrate processing degree on biogas yielding process ab 26.9 EURO
Inadequate energy supply and environmental pollution are gargantuan problems confronting many developing nations of the world. The energy demanding lifestyle of the modern world calls for the generation of energy from alternative sources that are renewable and eco friendly. Rising crude oil prices and environmental pollution resulting from the exploration, processing and utilization of crude oil and its products have forced nations of the world to think about alternative sources of energy. Economic growth and the resultant heavy consumption of natural resources are responsible for pollution, global warming and production of acid rain etc. There is a consensus of opinion that achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa and other developing economies will require a significant expansion of access to modern and alternative renewable energy. Biogas energy could serve this purpose and can also be managed by locally available resources and simple technology especially for rural dwellers. Anaerobic digestion is one of the few biotechnologies that can simultaneously produce bioenergy (as methane biogas), reduce environmental pollution and recycle nutrients.
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is recently promoted as an upgrading technology for highly wet streams such as digestate from biogas plants, sewage sludge, and other waste biomass. It converts raw feedstock into a coal-like product known as hydrochar. The resulting hydrochar has fuel characteristics similar to lignite coal, potential for soil amendment, or for material use. Besides the solid phase, HTC further yields a highly contaminated waste water, which cannot be released to the environment without further processing. The aim of this study is to analyze the feasibility of treating HTC waste water by anaerobic digestion (AD). First of all, the general AD feasibility and long-term stability of HTC waste water as a sole substrate is tested by experimental means. Hereby, the focus is placed on AD process performance and potential inhibitory effects. Furthermore, the study includes the economic and energetic assessment of an industrial-scale HTC plant supplemented by anaerobic waste water treatment.
The need for protection of coastal areas is the background to the monitoring of environmental damage, which is one part of environmental management. In Indonesia, this is regulated in Laws, Government Regulations and Ministry of Environment Regulations. This paper focuses on management of Organic Waste, Plastic Waste, Hazardous and Toxic Waste (B3), Electronic Waste. Organic Waste can be treated into organic fertilizer and biogas fuel. Plastic Waste can be manage by insenerator, ATM Plastic garbage, and processing plan. Waste, Hazardous and Toxic Waste can be treated in simply or in a modern way. Simple B3 waste treatment can use Moringa oleifera seed powder which contains the active substance rhamnosyloxy-benzilisothioc. Modern B3 waste treatment uses wastewater management (IPAL), through the stages of primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment. Electronic Waste can be treated by no combustion, but by recycled. Also discussed about both of management waste in Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the European Union.
Anaerobic Digestion is a series of chemical reactions during which organic material is decomposed through the metabolic pathways of naturally occurring microorganisms in an oxygen-depleted environment.In nature this type of breakdown typically occurs in warm wet and dark environments, such as in the digestive tracts. The microorganisms are exploited in the biotechnological process of anaerobic digestion both to reduce the pollution caused by organic wastes and to produce methane, which can be used as a fuel. The number and types of microorganisms present in digesters are likely to depend upon the type of digester, its operating conditions and the waste composition. Anaerobic Digesters can be used on any carbon containing industrial wastewater i.e. food processing, pulp and paper, sugar and distillery, slaughterhouse, cheese whey and diary units, brewing industry and municipal sludge. Also, they provide an effective method for turning residues from different wastes, biogas (rich in methane which can be used to generate heat and/or electricity), fiber (this can be used as a nutrient-rich soil conditioner) and liquor (this can be used as liquid fertilize).
Obtaining biogas through the process of anaerobic fermentation is considered the most efficient method due to that it does not contribute to existing pollution, it protects the environment and brings added value to both social and economic level. Thus,"The influence of substrate processing degree on biogas yielding process" represents a contribution of the author to the enrichment of worldwide experimental researches, through the different mixtures used as substrate during testing, as well as through the analysis of the plant behavior during the comminution mechanical processing, respective mixing in liquids, simulating the mechanical process of stirring from anaerobic fermentation. Also, the book is in alignment with the innovative requirements and recommendation of the European Union regarding energetic security and independence and the exploitation of renewable sources of energy.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process in which biodegradable organic matters are broken-down by microorganisms in the absence of oxygen into biogas, which consists of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), and trace amount of other gases. AD typically converts the organic waste into biogas at an increasing rate for the first two weeks where the rate of conversion is constant until the organic source is consumed. AD is widely used to treat wastewater sludge and organic waste. Some of the advantages of applying AD are it s a renewable source of energy, reduces the emission of landfill gases and the nutrient rich solids left after digestion can be used as an organic soil amendment. AD is increasingly used as a technology that can deal with mixed organic waste streams (e.g. animal slurry, sewage, BMW, food processing wastes). The fibrous component of the digestate can be used as a soil improver or further composted to achieve a compost material suitable for horticultural, land reclamation and agricultural applications.
Huge amounts of waste generated in Cameroon from various production activities are not disposed of as appropriate, nor as possible. The resulting harm on the environment is immense. Lack of the inclusion of sound waste management techniques in the agendas of the stakeholders over the years stand as the greatest challenge to the country. The health of the population is grossly at stake, and public health safety measures in Cameroon must be completely interwoven with the implementation of a sound waste management system. Resources that may have been allocated to other public investment projects are diverted to harness raw materials for the industries,while a vast amount of such raw materials lie in dumps,the ultimate waste recipient in Cameroon. Plus recommending the adoption of sound policies,this two-part study reviews in part I, a sound waste management chain: sorting, regular collection, recycling,incineration, composting/fermentation for energy recovery , before final landfilling. Part II addresses the example of palm oil processing and looks into how compost and biogas can be conveniently tapped from the residues to supplement income for the industry.
During last decade Indonesia plays role as the important net palm oil exporter in the world. However, research and development are rolling towards bioproducts criteria of either palm oil, its derivatives or side products. New emerging trends are revealed in this book such as refined palm oil for frying oil, fractionated biodiesel for winter climate application, palm biocomposite including bio polyol as an advanced material, pelletized feed for beef and dairy cattle husbandries and renewable energy of biogas for electrictity. Other application of palm wastes aims to preserve environment and to promote economic activities involves unskilled people in developing countries. This book clearly opens our perspective about integrated palm oil processing and its derivatives benefits. This book should be especially intended to professionals, students, academician, or practitioners who consider agribusiness in their works.