The availability of potable water is receding due to the discharge wastewater from industrial sector. Purification and recycling of wastewater have been made mandatory. Anaerobic technology is the most versatile option for treating high-strength organic wastewater. The book describes the treatment of synthetic starch containing wastewater of high COD in an anaerobic tapered fluidized bed bioreactor which reduced the wash out of the biomass. Mesoporous Activated Carbon (MAC) was used as a carrier matrix to improve the efficiency through insitu immobilization of anaerobic bacteria and caused internal micro agitation due to entrapped gases. The effect of parameters viz., temperature, pH, BOD, COD, biogas, total VFA and its composition, alkalinity, ORP, bed height and superficial velocities on the performance of the reactor is discussed. The COD removal efficiency is 92% in the reactor. The book includes preparation and characterization of MAC, optimization of the reactor and kinetic study for different start-up under transient conditions. Further a mathematical model for the prediction of the output values using different neural network techniques is developed.
The present book is a result of experimental work carried out on a spark- ignition engine fueled with Bio-gas. The biogas was obtained by the anaerobic digestion of Gobar(Cow-Dung). The investigations are made to determine the difference in the performance of the engine due the the purification of raw bio-gas. It is a good work carried out by the author which can further be studied by using various other biogas cleaning methods.
Since many years, Pakistan is facing the difficulties of energy shortage. Each year government is paying more than 14 billion US dollars on crude oil to complete the energy breach. Energy requirement is rising speedily however use of renewable energy is not sufficient to meet required need. In this book, the potential of biogas production and purification techniques are reviewed for power generation applications. Up to 2.5 KWh energy could be produced by 1 cubic meter of bio-gas. In the livestock sector, there is 4% growth rate in Pakistan on annual basis. The yearly growing rate of livestock sector is 4% in Pakistan and its manure can yield 35.5 GWh of electric energy daily. Energy crisis can be sorted by efficiently using bio-gas up-gradation as an alternative energy source. Different techniques of biogas purification for all the applications designed for natural gas were studied and reported in this book. Biogas purification experiments were conducted using chemical absorption technique on a pilot plant of biogas. The upgraded biogas could be utilized for the purpose of Cooking, Heating, Lightening (gas lamp), Electricity (generator) and Bio fertilizer.
This book presents the state of the art in biogas production using anaerobic digestion technology, with an emphasis on waste utilization/valorization. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to biogas production from different waste streams, it covers various aspects of anaerobic digestion technology from the basics, i.e., microbiological aspects to prominent parameters governing biogas production systems, as well as major principles of their operation, analysis, process control, and troubleshooting. Written and edited by internationally recognized experts in the field of biogas production from both academia and industry, it provides in-depth and cutting-edge information on central developments in the field. In addition, it discusses and reviews major issues affecting biogas production, including the type of feedstock, pretreatment techniques, production systems, design and fabrication of biogas plants, as well as biogas purification and upgrading technologies. 'Biogas: Fundamentals, Process, and Operation' also addresses the application of advanced environmental and energy evaluation tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), exergy, techno-economics, and modeling techniques.
The book has been designed for Engineers, Environmentalist, Technologists, process analyst and potential entrepreneurs who wish to apply adsorption technology to purify biogas. The book skilfully blends critical thinking with engineering practice to provide step by step procedure in biogas purification and characterization. Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the biogas production technology and purification while chapter 2 presents the literature review on the same subject. Techniques used for the production, purification, and characterization of the biogas were described in chapter 3. Results were discussed in chapter four while the conclusions drawn were presented in chapter five.