Biogas Value Chain and Environmental Sustainability ab 68 € als Taschenbuch: Biogas Production From Biowaste In Kenya And Its Contribution To Environmental Sustainability. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Wissenschaft, Technik,
Biogas Value Chain and Environmental Sustainability ab 68 EURO Biogas Production From Biowaste In Kenya And Its Contribution To Environmental Sustainability
In this book, Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used to select the appropriate Renewable Energy Technology for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation along with the analysis of household energy consumption survey in the two districts of far-western region of Nepal has been carried out. Since, selecting technology for this region with single criteria does not gives the perfect result, for which MCDA has been adopted considering costs, economic, environmental and social criteria. The MCDA found the renewable energy intervention with Improved Cook Stove (ICS) technology for high and mid hills and Biogas technology for Terai be best option for mitigation of GHG emission with social and economic benefits and fuel switching through solar cooker found to be the best option for this region to have climate adaptation as one time solution. The projection of GHG emission by penetration of these technologies give reduction in indoor emission by half the value it would be without penetration of these technologies by 2030.
Digestate beside biogas is next product of anaerobic digestion process. It is traditionally used for agricultural purposes, especially as liquid fertilizer. Though digestate contains important nutrients and is a valuable mineral and organic fertilizer, it is liquid product which has to be utilized immediately or it has to be transported, stored or disposed. Transport and spreading costs can exceed the value of the fertilizer it same, so there are efforts to use this product by another way. This book is focused on this issue, especially to describe the physico-mechanical properties of digestate briquettes in relation to unknown pages of its sorption properties. Three targets have been stated namely: to increase awareness of basic, mainly mechanical, properties of the compressed digestate, to determine by laboratory experiments sorption potential of the digestate briquettes, in comparison with a different material, and last is based on gained properties and measured values changes in digestate briquettes properties depended on water uptake. This study should help next researchers or anyone else who is interested in question of biomass briquettes properties and uses.
The main focus of this book is on energy efficient strategies for sludge management, with special focus on anaerobic digestion which produces biogas to replace fossil fuels. Pulp and paper mill sludge is currently treated as a poor quality biofuel and some mills treat it solely as a disposal problem. Our results show that electricity used for aerators in the wastewater treatment plant should be kept to the minimum required for sufficient reduction of dissolved organics. If more electricity is used, i.e. if more air is used for wastewater treatment, this will reduce the energy value of the sludge as the bio-sludge will be degraded. Biogas production using anaerobic co-digestion of pulp- and paper mill sludge together with either municipal wastewater treatment sludge or with manure and grass silage has been studied from several perspectives. It was found that anaerobic digestion is a feasible option for pulp and paper mill sludge management, provided that co-digestion with other substrates is used for nutrient supplementation.
Biogas is considered the most promising energy technology for the rural applications in Nepal and in other parts of the world because of its multiple values in rural economy, environment and livelihood of the people. Nutrient rich slurry is one of the important products of the biogas system, known to containing all the essential plant nutrients in balanced and readily available forms. Contrarily, management and utilization BgS have not received due considerations in the biogas promotion program in the country. In the absence of effective awareness, education and technology promotion, farmers' practices of slurry management have not been based on scientific evidences and practices aiming at utilization and conservation of essential plant nutrients. This study was carried out with the aim of documenting and analyzing the practices of management and utilization of digested biogas slurry (BgS) and its value in the production of organic tea in Kolbung VDC in Ilam District.
Cellulosic wastes could be turned into several value-added products through bioconversion. This work examined four practical ways of transforming the vast amount of cellulosic wastes in our environment into a valuable resource. Being a natural habitat of cell-wall hydrolyzing organisms, cellulosic wastes are good sources of viable cellulolytic organisms. These are organisms that produce enzymes that degrade plant cell-wall polymers. The wastes can therefore serve as a source of low-cost fermentation substrates for producing industrial enzymes needed for the saccharification of cellulosic materials. It could also be used as cheap carbon and energy source for selective media used in cultivating cellulolytic organisms. Such uses will undoubtedly reduce the cost microbial media and also the production cost of cellulolytic enzymes. The waste cellulosic materials can also be enzymatically hydrolyzed into simple sugars using cellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases and xylanases. Hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides into simple sugars is the primary step needed for the conversion of cellulosic materials into bulk chemicals such as ethanol and biogas.
Communities around the world generate refuse of diverse nature and complexities, the disposal of which poses serious challenges to waste management systems. Environmentally sustainable waste management requires the reduction of their pollution potential as well as minimisation of their volume for easier handling and disposal. This book assessed the potentials of generating biogas from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW) to fuel an incinerator which is then used to burn the residual combustible solid waste. The efficacy of the digester in producing biogas were in three (3) phases. Lowest: day 3-11 @ 0.018m3/kg, highest, day 15-55 @ 0.034m3/kg and medium, day 55-94 @ 0.031m3/kg. Fertilizer values based on the ratios of N:P:K:Mg were 28:1:22:4, 1:971:821:1995 and 10:1:59:104 for digestate, bottom ash and their combination respectively. Total Organic Carbon contents of the digested solid waste were 0.1389 %, 0.8099 %, and 0.3008 % of the initial mass for the three samples respectively. A small scale incinerator was built and a biogas-air mixer was developed for optimal burner efficiency. Biogas burnt at 870 deg C with 16kJ/g calorific value at the rate of 0.0071m3/min.
Obtaining biogas through the process of anaerobic fermentation is considered the most efficient method due to that it does not contribute to existing pollution, it protects the environment and brings added value to both social and economic level. Thus,"The influence of substrate processing degree on biogas yielding process" represents a contribution of the author to the enrichment of worldwide experimental researches, through the different mixtures used as substrate during testing, as well as through the analysis of the plant behavior during the comminution mechanical processing, respective mixing in liquids, simulating the mechanical process of stirring from anaerobic fermentation. Also, the book is in alignment with the innovative requirements and recommendation of the European Union regarding energetic security and independence and the exploitation of renewable sources of energy.